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What is buffer solution? Give an example.

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A mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a mixture of a weak base and its conjugate acid is called a buffer solution or a buffer. Buffer solutions resist a change in pH when small amounts of a strong acid or a strong base are added. A solution of acetic acid and sodium acetate CH3COOH + CH3COONa is an example of a buffer that consists of a weak acid and its salt. An example of a buffer that consists of a weak base and its salt is a solution of ammonia and ammonium chloride NH3aq + NH4Claq.
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