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“In places like Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Gurugram, where many IT firms or call centres are
located, shops and restaurants have also changed their opening hours, and are open late.”
Give reasons.
The Industrial Society is characterised by alienation. How?

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-overwork is built into the structure of outsourced projects in the IT sector: project costs
and timelines are usually underestimated in terms of mandays, and because mandays
are based on an eight-hour day, engineers have to put in extra hours and days in order
to meet the deadlines.
-Extended working hours are legitimised by the common management practice of ‘flexitime’, which in theory gives an employee freedom to choose his or her working hours
(within limits) but, which in practice, means that they have to work as long as necessary
to finish the task at hand.
-But even when there is no real work pressure, they tend to stay late in office either
due to peer pressure or because they want to show the boss that they are working
(Any two)
 Industrial society involves detailed division of labour so people often do
not see the end result of their work since they are producing only one small
part of a product.
 Work is repetitive and exhausting.
 This leads to alienation for people don’t enjoy their work and see it as
something they have to do in order to survive, and even that survival
depends on whether the technology has room for any human labour.
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